Planck E PressCenter Articles

Rebels Without Fermi

Location: São Paulo, Brazil
Date published: 2023-09-25
Date modified: 2023-09-25
Reading time: 00:01:09

Author: Patrizia Tomasi-Bensik

Rebels Without Fermi

“Not only is the Universe stranger than

we think, it is stranger than we can think.”

Werner Heisenberg


In the last article, I talked about high-energy particles that are subject to Pauli exclusion.

In this article we will see which ones are subject to the Fermi exclusion and, if all goes well, next time we will try to make sense of it.  We will try, because this meaning finds limits in the Standard Model, and this is hanging by a thread.

So let's go.

We have already seen that ½ spin leptons are known as fermions.  We also have bosons.  Bosons, yes.  Including the infamous Higgs’.  If bosons do not obey either the Fermi or the Pauli exclusion, it is because the Fermi exclusion is derived from Pauli's when he stated that more than one particle cannot be in the same quantum state.  From there, Fermi (and Dirac, separately) states that it is impossible to describe them separately because they are anonymous and overlapping.

Unlike fermions, bosons have integer spins (1 or 2) whose function is to mediate quantum interactions.  Thus, photons mediate electromagnetism, gluons mediate the strong interaction.  The weak interaction is mediated by the vector bosons W+, W-, and Z0.

When we tried to integrate with the fourth force, the symmetry told us that there would be a kind of boson acting on gravity, the gravitons.

But it became very difficult and the plastic quantum mechanics group proposed the fifth force.

That makes it easy.  Unintelligible, but easy.

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